NEWS and NOTES
Vol. IV, No. 1
The Church Attendance Gap:
A look at two older studies whose findings
should be taken more seriously.
Two studies on church attendance performed in 1993 and 1996 by C. Kirk Hadaway and P.L. Marler demonstrate that committed church members tend to exaggerate the number of times they attend church. The studies attempt to address a mathematical conundrum. Year after year, 40 percent of Americans tell Gallup pollsters they attended church or synagogue in the past week. Yet church membership has remained flat while the population has grown. Hadaway and Marler decided to take a closer look to see if church members were misreporting the numbers.
In 1993, Hadaway, Marler and researcher Mark Chaves examined attendance at Protestant churches in one Ohio county and in 18 Roman Catholic dioceses across the country. Instead of 40 percent of Protestants attending church each week, they found 20 percent. Instead of the 50 percent of Catholics who say they attend church, they found 28 percent.
In response to criticism that researchers did not provide a direct connection between the date people reported their attendance and the date researchers counted them, another survey was devised. In this 1996 survey, researchers chose a 2,000-member middle-class, white evangelical church in the deep South. (They did not identify it by name.)
This time, they posted researchers across the sanctuary to count heads and then interviewed a sample of 300 church members and asked them if they attended church that Sunday.
The results confirmed their thesis. Of the 300 people interviewed, 209 said they attended worship the previous Sunday, or about 70 percent. But if 70 percent of the members had indeed been at church, attendance should have been 1,710. In fact, it was 984. Researchers expected some misreporting, so they asked the 209 members who said they had been at church if they attended a worship service or some other type of church meeting. When asked in this way, 182 members said they participated in worship. But even that self-reported attendance total remains too high — at 61 percent. Had 61 percent of church members been at services there should have been 1,489 heads at worship and not 984.
Taking their study one step further, researchers attempted to identify misreporters by examining Sunday school rosters. Unlike church worship, Sunday school attendance is taken using pre-printed attendance forms that are checked off every week. Here too, 60 percent of those interviewed said they attended Sunday School. In fact, only 38 percent were actually seen in the classrooms.
Researchers then found a curious relationship between those who say they attend church frequently and those who misreported their attendance at Sunday school. People who say they attend church frequently are more likely to misreport their Sunday School attendance. Conversely, those who say they say they attend church infrequently are less likely to misreport Sunday school attendance.
Does that mean frequent churchgoers are less honest? Not necessarily. Instead, misreporting seems to be tied to people’s perception of themselves as active churchgoers. Americans tend to overrate desirable behavior. That’s why people overestimate the number of times they voted or the number of times they gave money to the poor.
It’s the same reason men overestimate the number of sexual partners they’ve had. Overreporting may be a way of affirming an activity people find desirable.
So long as people hold church in great esteem they will exaggerate their attendance at worship. But the results of these two studies have other implications as well. They suggest that inflated church attendance figures have produced a distorted image of religion in America. "If real," the researchers concluded, "a large attendance gap suggests that many assumptions about the robustness and exceptional nature of religion in America should be modified."
More of Marler and Hadaway’s work can be found at the online articles section of our web site at http://hirr.hartsem.edu/sociology/sociology_online_articles.html
Did You Really Go To Church This Week? Behind the Poll Data by C. Kirk Hadaway and P.L. Marler The Christian Century, May 6, 1998, pp. 472-475
Testing the attendance gap in a conservative church.
by Penny Long Marler, C. Kirk Hadaway Sociology of Religion, Summer, 1999. (may be password protected)
A new report on Religion on the Internet was just released by the Pew Internet & American Life Project. Check it out at www.pewinternet.org/reports/toc.asp?Report=119
What's New on our site:
We now have quite a few full texts of out-of-print books on the Institute site. Two recent additions include:
Women of the Cloth: A New Opportunity for the Churches (1983)
Jackson W. Carroll, Ph.D., Barbara Hargrove, Ph.D., Adair T. Lummis, Ph.D.
Cultural images do not change easily, especially those weighted with the aura of sacred tradition. This book is about changes that the Clergy image is undergoing as increasing numbers of women enter the ordained ministry of several Protestant denominations.
A Study of Doctor of Ministry Programs (1987)
This study was conducted under the auspices of Auburn Theological Seminary and Hartford Seminary's Center for Social and Religious Research (HIRR). Reported by Jackson W. Carroll and Barbara G. Wheeler and based on research by Jackson W. Carroll, Adair T. Lummis, David A. Roozen, and Barbara G. Wheeler with special financial studies conducted by Badgett Dillard and Anthony Ruger.
Four excellent papers were given at the Institute sponsored New England Religion Discussion Society (NERDS) meeting. The paper titles are:
“The Vatican and Pedophilia: The Church/State Implications" by Je Renee Formicola, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Political Science at Seton Hall.
"The Sanctity of Marriage: Current Boundaries and the New Vocabulary" by King W. Mott, Ph.D., Associate Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, Seton Hall.
"Errant Boundaries in the Nine Inch Nails: Using the Profane to Teach the Divine," by Andrew Tatusko, Ph.D. candidate in Research Policy at Seton Hall University.
"Spiritual vs. Human Scientific Forms of Consciousness: The Relationship Revisited," by Anthony L. Haynor, Chairperson of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology and also Department Chair
Each of these are available on our site at http://hirr.hartsem.edu/about/about_nerds.html